Advances in Lower-Limb Prosthetic TechnologyBy Laferrier, Justin Z.; Gailey, Robert; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, Vol. 21, pp. 87-110
Publication Date: 2010
Article outlines the development of lower limb prosthetics, with emphasis on advancements made during the last 30 years. The paper concentrates on the following innovations: (1) osseointegration, using titanium bone implants as a method of anchoring a prosthesis to the residual limb; (2) surgical lengthening of the residual limb to improve prosthetic fitting; (3) development of suspension sleeves for socket suspension and liners to provide cushioning for the residuum, also combined to create suspension liners and available in materials such as closed cell foam, urethanes, silicone gels and elastomers, and materials combinations; (4) improvements in socket design, including vacuum socket systems as exemplified by the Harmony by Otto Bock; (5) prosthetic knees, including microprocessor knees using sensors and microprocessors to monitor and control knee position; examples given include the C-Leg, Rheo, Adaptive, and Agility knees, as well as the Power Knee II; (6) foot and ankle systems, including the solid ankle cushioned heel (SACH) foot, followed by the development of J-shaped energy storing and return (ESAR) feet such as the carbon fiber Flex-Foot and subsequently microprocessor feet including the Proprio Foot and systems in development, the Power Foot designed at MIT to mimic normal human ankle walking behavior, and the 2 degrees of freedom Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics (SPARKy) developed at Arizona State University; and (7) sport specific prosthetic components such as the Cheetah and Flex-Run feet and preferred hydraulic knee systems for transfemoral amputee athletes such as the Mauch, S-type, and Otto Bock Modular Polycentric Axis Joint. Also discussed are common prosthetic outcome measures and future research directions to improve functionality of lower limb prosthetics.
Assistive Products Discussed: FLEX-FOOT MODULAR III
C-LEG (MODEL 3C100)
Published by: Elsevier Inc. (Website:http://www.elsevier.com)
Link to text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19951780