Changes in Executive Functions and Self-Efficacy Are Independently Associated With Improved Usual Gait Speed in Older WomenBy Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Davis, Jennifer C.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Hsu, Chun Liang; Katarynych, Lindsay A.; Khan, Karim M.; BMC Geriatrics, Vol. 10, No. 25
Publication Date: 2010
Study examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls related self efficacy with improved gait speed among community dwelling senior women. Participants were 135 women aged 65 to 75 years who were living independently in their own home and had completed a 12 month randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training using a Keiser Pressurized Air system and free weights versus balance and tone training. Usual gait speed was assessed using a 4 meter walk. Three executive processes were assessed using standard neuropsychological tests: (1) set shifting assessing psychomotor speed, requiring participants to draw lines connecting encircled letters and numbers sequentially; (2) working memory, using verbal digits forward and backward tests; and (3) selective attention and conflict resolution. A linear regression model was constructed to determine the independent association of change in executive functions and falls related self efficacy with change in gait speed. Improved selective attention and conflict resolution, and falls related self efficacy were independently associated with improved gait speed after accounting for age, global cognition, baseline gait speed, and change in quadriceps strength. Total variance accounted by the linear regression model was 24 percent. Study limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
Published by: BioMed Central Ltd (Website:http://www.biomedcentral.com)
Link to text: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/10/25